Marie Curie was a pioneering physicist and chemist, born in Poland in 1867. She conducted groundbreaking research on radioactivity and is best known for her discovery of the radioactive elements polonium and radium. Her work laid the foundation for modern radiology and cancer therapy. Curie was the first woman to win a Nobel Prize and remains the only person to have received Nobel Prizes in two different scientific fields (Physics and Chemistry).
Alan Turing was a British mathematician and computer scientist, born in 1912. He is often referred to as the "father of computer science" and played a pivotal role in breaking the German Enigma code during World War II. Turing's work on the Turing machine and the concept of algorithm laid the groundwork for modern computing. His contributions continue to influence the field of artificial intelligence.
Katherine Johnson was an African-American mathematician, born in 1918. She worked for NASA and played a vital role in the early days of the U.S. space program. Johnson's mathematical calculations were critical to the success of the first manned spaceflights, including John Glenn's historic orbit of Earth. Her story was featured in the book and movie "Hidden Figures," which brought her contributions to the forefront.
Elon Musk is a contemporary entrepreneur and engineer, born in South Africa in 1971. He is the co-founder and CEO of SpaceX, Tesla, Inc., Neuralink, and The Boring Company. Musk is known for his ambitious projects, including developing reusable rockets for space travel, advancing electric vehicles, and working on technologies for human colonization of Mars. His work has had a profound impact on space exploration and sustainable transportation.